Saturday, September 21, 2019

Marilyn Manson and His Impact on Sub-culture Essay Example for Free

Marilyn Manson and His Impact on Sub-culture Essay Marilyn Manson has been pushing the envelope of the right to freedom of expression since his controversial shock rock antics began in the early 1990s. His methods are strange and rejected by most of society, as it cannot understand what he is trying to achieve. Many people believe that Marilyn Manson is bizarre, seeing him wearing womens clothing, applying heavy facial makeup, and covering himself with jewelry. His success can be attributed not only to his entertainment abilities, but even more so to the incredible marketing campaign organized to promote himself and his crazy actions. His actions give the media a scapegoat to fall back on and a figure which they can blame all of societys problems. He has amassed a large following throughout the 1990s and even today as the self-proclaimed Anti-Christ Marilyn Manson. His fans understand where he has come from, what he has been through and are familiar with rejection from society. The Marilyn Mansons following is normally associated with the Gothic or Goth subculture. At first examination, this seems to be the case as Manson followers and those of the Goth community share remarkable similarities; although true Goths label Manson follows as merely Spooks or Mall Goths, and not real members of the Gothic following. The similarities have been exploited by the media and have linked his music to violent acts against society. It was following the Columbine incident that the media began routinely tagging Marilyn Manson as goth rock despite the fact that Mansons music had little relation to gothic music or sub-culture. (Marilyn, Wikipedia) This essay will explore the reasons why Marilyn Manson is who he is today, why he has such an influence over a particular subculture, and if these followers are actually part of the Gothic community. Who Is Marilyn Manson? Marilyn Manson, the alias and alter-ego of Brian Warner, was created using Marilyn Monroe and serial killer Charles Manson two opposites in society. (Marilyn, Brian Warner, who formed the band in 1989 and whose apparent business savvy and flair for controversy turned them into a success. Using androgyny, satanic images and themes of rebellion and death, Manson irked bystanders and proved that outrageous rock was still a viable form of entertainment. (Marilyn, The band originally started in South Florida as a small industrial Goth band, and by 1990, Marilyn Manson, along with four other musicians became Marilyn Manson and the Spooky Kids. They opened for Nine Inch Nails (NIN), and Trent Reznor was very impressed with them and would help them in the future in many different ways. They got a contract from Trent Reznors new label Nothing and got a spot on Nine Inch Nails 94 tours. Manson got to meet Dr. Anton Szandor LaVey. He is the founder of the Church of Satan. Dr. LaVey named Manson as a priest of the Church of Satan. Hence, the title Reverend was given to Manson. (Stanton, Bizarre) Mansons interest in Satanism began when he as a young boy. He spent most of his childhood at his grandparents home. Manson and his friend didnt have anything to do except explore his grandfathers (Jack Warner) basement. They find out that his grandfather is a cross-dresser and a user of explicit pornographic material such as bestiality. This is where Manson was first introduced to perversity. He attended a Christian school and had Christian beliefs forced upon him even though he was Episcopalian. He was teased and ridiculed because of this. This aside, he always knew that their was something different about him. After being detested by his peers, he gradually began to hate his school and take exception to everything that he was told. He turned to music to free him of the troubles that exist in his life, and instead finds out who he really is. He becomes the exact kind of person that he was once scared of as a youth. (Long, Manson and Strauss) Manson began his teenage years in public school where sex, drugs, rock, and the occult were laid in front of him and he began embrace them. Here he meets many people with the same interests as he has. Manson also begins to experience his sexuality with women. From his school experiences to his  involvement with sexuality, Manson begins terrorizing the people who have mistreated him. He started to experiment with black magic, began an enduring drug habit, and displayed his disgust for mainstream citizens by stealing from stores. All of this is what Brian Warner was, and who Marilyn Manson was to become. (Long, Manson and Strauss) As Mansons reputation developed, so did the disturbance surrounding him and his actions. His concerts were regularly protested by civil rights groups, and his music was the target attacks from religious and more specifically, Christian groups. This image was created using Mansons genius for marketing. At the peak of this controversy, Manson had a cover story in Rolling Stone Magazine as well as a best selling autobiography: The Long Hard Road Out of Hell. Why Does He Have Such A Following? Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. (Bill of Rights) Manson, along with many other artists, fully embraces their first amendment right to free speech to get their message across. This message mainly appeals to younger generations who can relate to Mansons songs. Younger audiences are more accepting of his attitude and beliefs, partly due to the fact that teens are more susceptible to mass influence and are easily confused. His communication and identification through music allowed him to amass a loyal following of discontented teens, also know as Mansonites. Mansonite can also be used to refer to anyone who has chosen to identify with the Goth subculture without having any idea of its actual nature or composition. Generally, an overnight Goth, or Spooky Kid, will adopt certain aspects of the Goth aesthetic (predominantly black clothing, copious amounts of eyeliner) and loudly proclaim themselves Goth. (Mansonite, Older generations are quick to assume that it is Mansons antics which appeals to his followers. But, if no attention was paid to Manson, and his songs and actions didnt receive the attention that they do, there wouldnt be such controversy over his religious beliefs or whether he is actually influencing delinquent teens. Teens that are labeled as outcasts can identify with Manson because the media portrays him as an outcast. He dresses differently, often in womens clothing and he pretends to be a homosexual something which is a hot topic of acceptance in todays society. Teenagers these days have very short attention spans and turn to someone like Manson to entertain them by doing extreme things. The Emergence of Spooky Kids goth (g th) n. A style of rock music that often evokes bleak, lugubrious imagery. A performer or follower of this style of music Courtesy of Mall Goth or Spooky Kid is a disparaging term for someone not supposed to be a real Goth, whose commitment to the Gothic is seen as shallow, pretentious, or dependent on shopping mall-purchased Goth clothes. Their taste is narrowly subjective to mallcore/nu-metal. There have been accusations that (some of, at least) those who listen to the music of Marilyn Manson, Korn, and Slipknot are mall goths. Many mall goths shop at the popular clothing store Hot Topic. (Mall Goths, Real Gothists would refer to Mansonites as posers, who pretend to know about a particular subculture, but in reality only know a few choice buzz-words and what style of clothes to wear. The Real Goth Subculture How do you define Goth? Goth is short for Gothic, and we typically associate Goth with people that wear black or blood-red coloured clothing . These clothes are often made of leather, lace, and fishnet, and are adorned with spikes, studs, or other shiny metal objects. Sometimes metallic, black, or dark makeup is worn by both the male and females. Some go so far as  permanent body modifications such as full body tattoos, tongue splitting, or vampire teeth implants. Those in the Goth scene tend to view the Goth concept rather as an expression of individuality, something they take part in because it seems comfortable and natural for them to do so, rather than because its something they want to be. And as such, Goth is a state of mind. Goth is not about being cool-hip, up-to-date. Goth is more about being cool-chilly as in unemotional, detached, unmoved at least on the surface. Theres an inner calmness, tranquility to it. A need for being given and giving the others space to be at one with themselves. Respect towards the individual at least as long as it is a fellow Goth. (Goth, BBC) After conducting a thorough research of the particular subculture, it really is difficult to define Goth. It is ambiguous and open for interpretation. If Marilyn Manson followers acts or dresses a certain way because of their expression for individuality, then they could be considered Goth. If a Marilyn Manson follower acts or dresses a certain way just to follow the crowd or fit in with this subculture, then, based on the quote above, they would not be considered Goth. Works Cited: The Long Hard Road Out of Hell: Marilyn Manson Neil Strauss Regan Books (April 1, 1999) Goth A Lifestyle, BBC Available via HTTP: Marilyn Manson,, the free encyclopedia. Available via HTTP: Mall Goth, the free encyclopedia. Available via HTTP: Mansonite,, the free encyclopedia. Available via HTTP: Marilyn Manson, Available via HTTP: Marilyn Manson, Available via HTTP: Stanton Lavey, Bizarre Magazine Available via HTTP: The Bill of Rights, US Department of State Available via HTTP:

Friday, September 20, 2019

Leadership In A Changing Environment Nhs Management Essay

Leadership In A Changing Environment Nhs Management Essay Spending on the NHS has risen from  £447m a year to  £96bn over the last 60 years (Ham 1997), nearly a 10-fold increase after adjustment for inflation (Hawe 2008). In 2000 the Labour government initiated a programme of investment of 7% budget increases for 7 years that was unprecedented for any healthcare system (Department of Health 2000). However, Andrew Lansley the new health secretary, recently announced that the NHS budget would continue to rise above inflation in the coming years, but signalled that the NHS may need to make more savings than the previously announced  £20bn in efficiency cuts, a move health experts described as extremely ambitious and unions warned could have a devastating impact on hospitals (The Guardian, 2010). The government say it is necessary to make savings on such a scale because of the squeeze in public spending. So the NHS, with a budget of  £100bn amounting to a fifth of total public spending will have to do more with less. The individuals charged with steering the NHS through this period of relative famine will no doubt be required to display all the qualities of good leadership in order to meet the demanding financial and strategic challenges that face the organisation. But what are those qualities? How are they being developed within the NHS, and are they even the right qualities needed to produce effective leadership in an organisation as complex and demanding as the NHS? This paper firstly takes a critical look at what might constitute good healthcare leadership with reference to the current NHS Leadership Qualities Framework (NHS Institute of Innovation and Improvement, 2005) and presents an alternative to the individualistic approach of seeing leadership as a set of distinct personal qualities, capabilities and/or behaviours. Some of the theoretical and methodological weaknesses of the individualistic approach are exposed in an attempt to challenge the established formula for good leadership, and argue that in the increasingly tough economic climate that the NHS has to operate in, a new style of leadership is required to meet the challenge of delivering high quality healthcare whilst balancing the books. Secondly we look at the role of organisational change in facilitating this new approach to leadership. Established models of culture change are summarised and analysed to see if they might fit within this new approach to leadership. Finally the author discusses his own personal style of leadership in light of the findings and attempts to apply theory to practice within his own working environment. Leadership in the context of the NHS The NHS employs more than 1.3 million  people spread across hundreds of organisations.  Leaders of NHS organisations need to provide strong, strategic leadership for their organisation while being held to account by local Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs) and other regulatory bodies for nationally and locally set objectives.  The performance of these organisations is dependant on the performance of clinicians who are often leaders in their own right, and due to the nature of their profession are expected to work under a great deal of autonomy. This is a problem that the NHS has been struggling with over its entire history. In 1983 the Conservative government of the time commissioned the Griffiths Report, which was a key trigger to the development of management and leadership in the NHS.  In the report, Roy Griffiths famously said, If Florence Nightingale were carrying her lamp through the NHS today she would be searching for the people in charge.  (Griffiths, 1983). The report is best known for recommending that general managers be introduced into the NHS. During the 1980s, hospitals began to integrate the medical profession into the management structure. In the early 1990s, however, with the introduction of the internal market, managers and leaders were tasked very clearly with balancing the books.  This resulted in managers becoming stereotyped as bean counters, a popular viewpoint still held by many (Kings fund, 2009). It was important then that the publication of Lord Darzis NHS Next Stage Review in 2008 (Doh, 2008) shifted the focus from general management onto the need for more clinical leadership.  Clinicians are being asked to have increasing involvement with the management agenda and take responsibility for the delivery of services locally. As a result of this increased recognition of a need for high quality leadership to deliver the NHS Plan (Doh, 2000) in 2009 the Chief Executive of the NHS, David Nicholson, established, and currently chairs the National Leadership Council (NLC). The Council has five main work streams: Top Leaders, Emerging Leaders, Board Development, Inclusion, and Clinical Leadership. This development represents a switch from where people were left to work out their career options for themselves, to a more nurturing environment, with a greater focus on support to both individuals and organisations. The Leadership Qualities Framework The document that underpins the development of leaders through the (NLC) is the Leadership Qualities Framework which has a number of applications and builds on the increasing emphasis in management recruitment, development and education on nurturing individual character traits in leaders, with the sole purpose of producing a set of abilities and transferable skills that can be applied in a variety of situations and contexts. Through this approach, NHS organisations hope to produce adaptable leaders, able to work across a multitude of complex environments and systems typical of a healthcare organisation. The term leadership is applied then to those who seemingly possess the abilities deemed necessary to lead, such as communication, people management, decision making and problem-solving. This dominant approach focuses on individual personal qualities for leadership development and is the latest in a long line of competency frameworks that have emerged in the last 50 years. The history of competency frameworks Leadership thinking has developed substantially over the last 50 years. The idea of individual character traits that started with Stogdill (1950) soon expanded into other schools of thought with McGregor pioneering the behavioural approach (1960) and Fiedler the contingency school (1967). These ideas were added to by Hersey Blanchard (1977) with situational leadership and Burns with transformational leadership (1978). All these approaches focus on leadership as a set of qualities embedded in the individual and can be thought of as competency approaches. There focus is on leaders who impress others; inspire people; push through transformations; get the job done; have compelling, even gripping visions; stir enthusiasm; and have personal magnetism (Maccoby, 2000). The NHS Leadership Qualities Framework is the latest such tool that adopts the individualistic approach with a focus on 15 core personal characteristics such as self-belief, empowering others, intellectual flexibility, political astuteness and integrity. These personal qualities are undoubtedly important but do not probably tell the whole story of what makes a good leader. Sanderson (2002) makes the point that management is more likely a consequence of complex contextually-situated interrelations, thoughts reiterated by Mintzberg in 2004 who suggests that our view of leadership is more likely to be an over-simplification of a vast pool of environmental data compressed into a few key people. So what are the major criticisms of competency models such as the LQF, and how might such a model have to adapt to ensure that the National Leadership Council produces the right kind of leaders needed for the future? Weaknesses of competency approaches to leadership There are at least five areas where the competency approach could be seen to be flawed (Bolden et al, 2006). Firstly it can be seen to be reductionist in the sense that it reduces the management role to its constituent parts rather than seeing it as a whole (Lester, 1994 Ecclestone, 1997). Secondly, the competencies that are listed as prerequisites for good leadership are often generic with no accounting of the nature of the task or situation (Swales Roodhouse, 2003). Thirdly, that focusing on personal traits may reinforce stereotypes about leadership rather than challenge them (Cullen, 1992). Fourthly, that not enough attention is given to the subtle qualities such as the moral and emotional elements of leadership that are difficult to quantify and measure (Bell et al. 2002). The fifth and final main criticism of competency frameworks is that their content forms part of an approach to education that aims to train individuals to improve their performance at work rather than develop more general cognitive abilities (Grugulis, 1997). If we accept the above weakness as legitimate, then it does cast doubt over the validity of competency frameworks such as the LQF to actually select and develop leaders. Salaman (2004) suggests that these frameworks may actually be confusing the issue when he states that The problems it promised to resolve are not capable of resolution and its promise consisted largely of a sleight of hand whereby organizational problems were simply restated as management responsibilities Weaknesses specific to the LQF include the fact that the initial research on which it was built was taken from interviews with Directors and Chief Executives rather than observation of good leadership in practice (NHS Leadership centre 2005). Also the qualities being promoted such as awareness, self-belief and integrity may be admiral in their own right but do not necessarily automatically lead to effective leadership. Bolden et al (2006) lists the characteristics as (a) a somewhat persecutory list of oughts, and (b) suggest that the characteristics still do little to get effective leadership done. One may be visionary, communicative and honest and still find leadership to be elusive. This then is the great paradox found within the competency approaches; that while they aim to highlight the skills that may be needed in certain situations, it is highly unlikely that people will encounter the exact same set of circumstances in their own practice because of the inherent complex nature of working life. Also, that while providing prescriptive solutions to problems may increase consistency, they may stifle any original though in the leader wanting to apply their own reasoning to the problem. The characteristics of the LQF seem then to be then a description of the qualities found in people in the top jobs rather than the prerequisites for leadership. The difference in viewing these traits as descriptive rather than prescriptive cannot be underestimated. Such descriptions however tend to oversimplify and may prove to be of limited, practical value within the climate of complexity, interdependence and fragmentation that arguably characterizes multi-disciplinary organizations such as the NHS (Blackler et al., 1999). Additionally, individuals are likely to try and define themselves according to the corporate language found within competency frameworks to legitimise their role rather than seek new ways of working and improving their practice (Holman Hall, 1997). Going back to Sandersons earlier point that management is more likely a consequence of complex contextually-situated interrelations, we can see how in a medical setting such as in a busy outpatient department the desired outcomes can only be achieved as a consequence of multiple staffing/patient/organisational/medical factors working in synergy. Successful leadership in this sort of environment is not likely to be the result of any one individual, but a result of all the characters competently playing their respective parts. Marx (1973) suggests that we should not focus on a few key individuals when trying to explain leadership in an organisation, because if we do so there is the danger that individuals become pigeonholed as either leader/follower and the nuances of the group interactions as a whole become lost. He ultimately describes the leadership focus on a few key people as an illusion. Using the earlier example of a trip to the outpatient department there is no point looking fo r a leader throughout the care process, as responsibility passes between various individuals, especially if you include the initial referral from the GP and follow up staff such as home help after the visit. Beyond individual competencies So if traditional competency frameworks, including the Qualities Leadership Framework are flawed, how can a view of leadership based on contextual factors better steer the future of leadership development within the NHS? Building on the initial thoughts of Marx in 1973, Bolden et al (2006) develop the argument that leadership is an organic process that is an ongoing, ever developing situation that individuals find themselves in whilst interacting with others. Leadership can come and go depending on the relationships that people have with each other and is inextricably linked to the particular environment of the time. Like power, leadership is an internal relation, constantly in-tension and subject to a myriad of meanings, values, ideals and discourse processes (Alvesson, 1996). One of the implications of reclassifying leadership in this way is that good and effective leadership cannot now be taught, only experienced by others. Sandberg (2000) interviewed assembly line workers and concluded that finding purpose at work led to appropriate competencies arising naturally. He proposes that by engaging in dialogue to clarify a workers purpose leads to better outcomes compared to presenting them with a list of competencies to achieve. Within the outpatient department example it is likely that the unified sense of purpose will bind the individual players, creating an environment that facilitates the emergence of positive behaviours when required. In light of the increasing economic constraints that health organisations have to operate within, it would be wise to promote leadership as potentially accessible to all by placing more emphasis on personal autonomy. Perhaps then this re-conceptualisation would encourage a shift not only in how leadership is researched, but also in how it is recognised, rewarded and developed within the NHS. Practically speaking the NHS needs to cast its net a bit wider when trying to define good leadership. It means opening up leadership from multiple angles, searching its small details, minor shifts and subtle contours (Dreyfuss Rabinow, 1982) to see it in the context of its environment. Bringing about organisational change In light of our proposal that it would be wise to promote leadership as potentially accessible to all by placing more emphasis on personal autonomy, there needs to be a way that leaders can disseminate this culture within their organisations. As many health organisations are built on strict hierarchical chains of command it is inevitable then that many organisation will have to go through some form of culture change to embrace new ideas and practices. Many people working in health organisations will be familiar with organisational change of some sort. But most would associate organisational change with shifts in management structures or indeed the creation/removal of whole new organisations. When structural change is implemented it is usually with the intention of bringing about change to meet wider goals such as introducing stronger leadership, achieving financial balance or addressing a previously unmet service need. There is however an alternative, the option of attempting to chan ge the culture within the organisation to meet these same goals. There are a vast range of models for understanding organisational culture change which were reviewed by Brown in 1995. His extensive review of the literature identified five main models detailed in Box 1. Lundbergs model, based on earlier learning-cycle models of organisational change; emphasises external environmental factors as well as internal characteristics of organisations. Dyers model, posits that the perception of crisis in conjunction with a leadership change are required for culture change to occur. Scheins model, based on a simple life-cycle framework; posits that different culture change mechanisms are associated with different stages in an organisations development. Gagliardis model, suggests that only incremental culture change can properly be described as a form of organisational change. A composite model, based on the ideas of Lewin, Beyer and Trice, and Isabella; provides some insights into the microprocesses of culture. Box 1: Five Models of Organisational Culture Change (Scott et al., 2003, adapted and derived from Brown 1995). No model is comprehensive enough to be said to be the definitive blueprint for change processes, but the merits and weaknesses of each are briefly listed in turn: Lundbergs model Figure 1 Lundbergs organisational learning cycle of culture change (Lundberg, 1985) and reproduced in Brown (1995). Lundbergs model (1985) recognises the presence of multiple subcultures that operate within organisations, and at each stage there are various internal and external conditions that need to be met in order to move round the cycle and for change to occur. It is not possible to go into all the detail that surrounds this model, but Lundberg describes the numerous precipitating events that can spark change (otherwise known as the trigger events) before describing the types of strategies employed by leaders and the different forms of action planning required to bring about change. Critics (Scott, 2003) suggest that the model is rather mechanistic, failing to fully acknowledge the dynamism and uncertainty between cause and effect in organisational life. It also fails to address the political forces (doctor-managerial tensions) within organisations, or recognise the influence of key individuals and groups in facilitating and resisting culture change (Mannion, 2010). Dyers cycle of cultural evolution Figure 2 The cycle of cultural evolution in organisations (Dyer 1985) and reproduced in Brown, (1995). Dyers model (1985) suggests that a crisis paves the way for a culture breakdown within an organisation, which in turn leads to the emergence of new leadership. A power struggle ensues whereby the new leadership has to assert their dominance over the old leadership by being seen to resolve the conflict between to two parties. To aid with this transition the new leadership introduce new values, symbols and artefacts into the organisation to banish the old organisational history. New people are recruited who support the new values and so the new culture is sustained. One advantage of Dyers model over many other theoretical models is that its two essential conditions for cultural transformation crisis and new leadership are relatively easy to identify and test in organisational settings. There is also a particular focus on leadership in organisational culture and change. However Scott (2003) again criticises the model for oversimplifying the change process, pointing out that the roles of the majority of individuals in an organisational culture are de-emphasised in favour of a focus on innovative leadership. Mannion (2010) mentions that Dyers model also fails to ask a crucial and rather obvious question about the causes of crises in organisations. Scheins Life Cycle Model Figure 3 Growth stages, functions of culture, and mechanisms of change. Reproduced from Schein (1985) and reproduced in Brown, (1995) Scheins life-cycle model of organisational culture change (1985) suggests that organisations undergo the three distinct stages of birth and early growth, organisational midlife, and organisational maturity. In the early birth and growth stages the organisation battles with its identity, characterised by revolutionary change and possible challenges to the leadership from individuals from the old culture. The midlife phase is characterised by deeply embedded values that need be brought to the surface through organisational development to bring about change. Other factors that can precipitate change during this stage however are new technology, scandals (such as the Bristol heart surgery tragedy/Harold Shipman) and the gradual drip feeding of new ideas by the leadership described by Quinn as Incrementalism (1978). The final mature stage implies that change would come easily to this type of organisation. In fact the opposite is true, and companies may have to go through large turnaround projects to detour from their well established courses. Leaders are also more likely to need to use coercive strategies for change when more subtle approaches have failed to produce results. Gagliardis model Figure 4 Gagliardis model: Cultural change as an incremental process (Brown 1995) Gagliardi (1986) agues that rather than seeing old cultures as totally replaced by new ones, the old ones are merely built upon to incorporate the new values. Leaders will ascribe success to the new ways of doing things despite the fact that the new process might have no connection to that particular outcome. This model of cultural change is interesting because it embraces the fact that gradual change can happen over time, and that the way that this happens can often be as a result of the way that successful leaders attribute the reasons behind the organisations success to previous decision making, even though those decisions would have made little or no effect on the result. The Composite model of Lewin, Beyer and Trice, and Isabella Figure 5 Understanding organisation culture change: three related domains (reproduced from Roberts and Brown (1992) The final model of organisational change discussed by Brown (1995) is a compilation model based on the ideas of Lewin (1951) as modified by Schein (1964), Beyer and Trice (1988) and Isabella (1990). Essentially the model describes the three stages of learning as freezing- clinging to what one knows, unfreezing exploring ideas, issues and approaches and refreezing identifying, utilising and integrating values, attitudes and skills with those previously held and currently desired. The framework is very general and applicable to any type of organisation and to any level within an organisation. However the model (much like Lundbergs in model 1) paints a very mechanistic picture of change, and it does not recognise the often painful transitions that can to take place moving between the three stages. This type of planned change model is not without its critics, and Garvin (1994) argues that change cannot occur from one stable state to another in the turbulent business environment that exists today. Bamford and Forrester (2003) suggest that the planned approach assumes that all parties are in agreement on their goals and direction and this is rarely the case. Hayes (2002) highlights that some organisations may have to change initially for environmental reasons but have no desire to define the end state. It serves then as a fairly limited descriptive tool, and does not attempt to inform as to whether any change programme has been successful or not. In contrast to planned change, emergent approaches see change as less reliant on the manager (Wilson 1992) and less prescriptive and more analytical in nature (Dawson 1994). Dawson claims that change must be linked to developments in markets, work organisation, systems of management control and the shifting nature of the organisational boundaries and relationships. There is therefore more emphasis on bottom-up action rather than top-down control in commencing and implementing organisational change. Given the need for NHS managers to harness the cooperation of professional staff and work across complex organisational boundaries, emergent approaches are often well suited to achieving change because the role of senior management shifts from a controller to a facilitator. Personal responses to leadership In having to reflect on my own leadership style I am immediately presented with a dilemma. The objective of this paper was to deconstruct the established models of leadership (including the NHS Leadership Qualities Framework) and adopt a new approach to leadership that incorporates the situational context and other social factors. I refer back to Dreyfuss Rabinow, (1982) who encourage us to open up leadership from multiple angles, searching its small details, minor shifts and subtle contours to see it in the context of its environment. There are at least five major weaknesses to this individualistic approach which have been discussed at length already, so I will not repeat myself here. But essentially by subjecting myself to these established competency frameworks I would undoubtedly be shoehorning myself into a set of constructs that would probably do little to help me establish how best to operate in my individual working environment. To take this thought one step further I would say that the best leaders are therefore the individuals most able to analyse their environment, adapt their interactions and self actualize within that environment appropriately. In light of the fact that NHS organisations are moving from large highly structured institutions to smaller stakeholder organisations with multiple players, the skills most required to lead will most probably be relational and persuasive. Perhaps then ones ability to interact with others according to model of relational proximity best describes the leaders of the future. This model lists the values needed for effective relationships such as focusing on the quality of the communication process, maintaining relationships, breadth of knowledge, use and abuse of power and valuing similarity and difference. I am again however again inclined to see this model as too prescriptive, and as Bolden mentions earlier lists the characteristics as (a) a somewhat persecutory list of oughts, and (b) suggest that the characteristics still do little to get effective leadership done. As a manager working in a Primary Care Trust I am able to see first hand how the general move towards decentralisation with greater autonomy does seem to be creating a paradox within the organisation. The combined effects of commissioning organisations splitting away from their provider arms and an increasing move towards an open market has created a more mechanistic approach towards commissioning and providing services. This seems to pull against the other central directive of remaining flexible to meet local need. Effective leadership for me then and I suspect all working a healthcare environment is to somehow thread the needle by employing on the one hand a mechanistic approach that satisfies the performance management demands from monitoring bodies, while at the same time remaining flexible enough to respond to the changing healthcare marketplace. Concluding remarks This paper has set out to demonstrate that the existing emphasis on developing leadership through competency based models such as the Leadership Qualities Framework is a flawed. Less emphasis needs to be placed on individual leaders and more attention paid to the environmental and situational factors that encourage leadership to thrive. The NHS is an organisation dependent on responsible shared leadership. It would not be accurate to attribute its successes and failures to the few as that viewpoint is likely to be an over-simplification of a vast pool of environmental data compressed into a few key people. Organisational culture change was discussed as a vehicle for introducing new approaches to leadership and the five main models of organisational change as reviewed by Brown in 1995 were summarised and discussed. None of these models were found to comprehensively describe the change process and most could be accused of being rather mechanistic, failing to fully acknowledge the dynamism and uncertainty between cause and effect in organisational life (Scott, 2003). The mixed messages distributed by policy makers centrally add to the confusion within healthcare, requesting that workers are both centrally accountable and at the same time expected to work flexibly and autonomously. The argument being then, that it is not possible (or even preferable) to maintain one leadership style in this context. Further research it seems is required to deepen our understanding of ideal environmental factors that allow leadership to blossom through bottom-up emergent processes as opposed to imposed top-down structural changes and rigid concepts of what constitutes good leadership.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

History of The Guillotine :: essays research papers

The guillotine was first introduced during the French Revolution by a man named Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin. He is a physician who first was involved with the issues of medicine. On December 1, 1789 he became interested in the idea of capital punishment. He invented the guillotine. It was a contraption used for causing immediate and painless death. It included a falling blade, running between two upright boards of wood and later a basket. Therefore, one may believe that the design of the guillotine helped with executions. The basket was used to catch the falling heads. In the early revolution Richard Clark said that originally a wicker basket lined with an oil cloth had been used to catch the head. Later on a metal bucket was used to prevent the blood from flowing through the streets. Since they guillotined so any people the bucket became a necessity to have. Along with this it helped to prevent the smell of death in the streets. The most important part of the guillotine is of course the blade. The first guillotine was built with a blade that was straight across. When someone had to be decapitated,force and exact precision were needed in order for it to be a success (Jonas L. Bulman). If the blade did not hit the exact spot on the neck it would become as thought it was an axe. It would hack away until the head came off. After all the chopping, the blade would often become dull. Throughout the revolution the blade was changed, it became angled. The angling of the blade helped to kill faster. It would not become dull as quickly and it would slice straight through without having to chop. The blade was made from steel and weighed about 40 kgs. To work the blade it was pulled to the top of the contraption then released with the cord to give it a quick reaction. With the quickness of the blade it was estimated that it took about .75th of a second to be guillotined. The bascule was invented later on through the revolution. Due to the fact it was found to be easier then forcing a struggling prisoner up a flight of steps. With the bascule a prisoner could just be bound to it then tipped over and moved into position to be guillotined. The bascule was made of wood and shaped like a plank. A prisoner would be strapped to it by their feet, ankles and waist.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Sigmund Freud Essay -- essays research papers

Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia in 1856. When he was four years old his family moved to Vienna. Due to his Jewish heritage, Freud left for England when the Nazi’s took control of Austria. Freud always considered himself first and foremost a scientist, endeavoring to extend the compass of human knowledge, and to his end, he enrolled at the medical school at the University of Vienna in 1873.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Sigmund Freud elaborated the theory that the mind is a complex energy-system, the structural investigation of which is proper province of psychology. He articulated and refined the concepts of the unconscious, of infantile sexuality, of repression, and proposed a tri-partite account of the mind's structure, all as part of a radically new conceptual and therapeutic frame of reference for the understanding of human psychological development and the treatment of abnormal mental conditions. Freud's innovative treatment of human actions, dreams, and indeed of cultural artefacts as invariably possessing implicit symbolic significance has proven to be extraordinarily fecund, and has had massive implications for a wide variety of fields, including anthropology, semiotics, and artistic creativity and appreciation in addition to psychology. Accomplishments   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Sigmund Freud concentrated originally on biology, doing research in physiology for six years under the great German scientist Ernest von Brucke. After that he focused in neurology. While at the university, in 1874 he discovered anti-Jewish prejudices and declared his place is â€Å"with the opposition.† He traveled to Manchester, Britain, to see his half brother, Philippe, and his niece Pauline, in 1875. The following year he did his first personal research in Trieste, on sexual glands of anguilas. That sane year he joined Brucke’s laboratory. In 1877, Freud published the end result of his anatomical research on the central nervous system of a specific larva. In 1880, he did a year of military service. Freud received his medical degree in 1881. Having become engaged to be married in 1882, he rather unwillingly took up more dependable and financially rewarding work as a doctor at Vienna General Hospital. Shortly after his marriage in 1886, which was e xtremely happy, and gave hi... ... unconscious in its place. What he discovered, it has been suggested, was the extreme prevalence of child sexual abuse, particularly of young girls, even in respectable nineteenth century Vienna. He did in fact offer an early 'seduction theory' of neuroses. He quickly withdrew this theory because of it being discouraged , and replaced with theory of the unconscious. Conclusion In whole, Sigmund Freud is one of the most important thinkers of the twentieth century. Over the years, his work became more complex and wider in scope, less influenced by biology, and more humane. Once his name was established, people traveled to see him and wrote to him from all over the world. What these people sensed in him was his interest, his ability to put himself in their place, and his generous desire to help them. Work Cited Cf. Masson, J. The Assault on Truth   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Avg Antivirus

AVG  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ that’s short for  Anti Virus Guard  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ is a PC security package that provides comprehensive protection against the latest threats on the internet today. It is supported and trusted by millions of users across the globe. The authors of AVG provide free antivirus and antispyware protection for home users because for them, it’s a win-win situation   Ã¢â‚¬â€œ you get the protection you need, and they get to know about any viruses you encounter which helps keep the protection comprehensive. Please feel welcome to take a look at our other articles too, the latest are published in the column to the left- along with the most popular essay writers wanted.How to install AVG Antivirus Step 1. Download AVG You can download AVG FREE by  clicking here. When prompted, click the Run button. Notes: * Downloading AVG could take several minutes even with a broadband connection, so be patient and make yourself a cup of tea while you wait. * You are in no way o bligated to pay GRISOFT / AVG anything, so you won’t need to enter any credit card details or even personal details. But there are other versions of AVG, so if you like it you might consider supporting the company’s efforts by purchasing their commercial product. Step 2. Start the InstallationNow that AVG has downloaded, the installation wizard will start. Your PC might ask you if you’re sure you want to run the file, if it does you’ll need to click Run to confirm. Notes: * You’ll have a short wait while AVG extracts. Step 3. The Installation Phase – â€Å"Welcome to the AVG Free Setup Program† First screen:  You’ve just entered the Wizard, so click Next. Second screen:  For the Acceptance Notice, click Accept. Third screen:  It’s a license agreement, read it if you want to, otherwise just click Accept. Fourth screen:  It’s a waiting game! Let the installer do its job and wait patiently.Fifth screen:  St andard or custom installation? Choose Standard, and click Next. Sixth screen:  Activate your AVG Free License. If the user name isn’t your own name, change it. Click next. Seventh screen:  AVG Security Toolbar You may want to install the toolbar if you visit websites that are questionable, or if others use the PC and you are unable to monitor their usage. The Toolbar will alert you when it thinks a website is a potential threat, the downside is it makes your browser a bit slower. If you don’t want to install it, untick the box. Click Next. Eighth screen:  Setup SummaryNothing of interest here. Just click Finish. Nineth screen:  Don’t worry about this one, leave it to do its job and go make yourself another cuppa! (No picture for this one! ) Tenth screen:  SUCCESS! Installation is complete! Click OK. — NOTE: You may have to restart at this point, so be prepared to do so. — Step 4. AVG First Run Wizard First screen:  The First Run Wizard helps set up AVG to suit your needs. Click Next. Second screen:  Schedule regular scans and updates Adjust the time to a time that is more convenient. Your computer will need to be switched on to perform a scan.It’s also worth noting that you can optionally disable this scan if your computer is generally slow to perform – you can run scans manually whenever you feel the need. Click Next. Third screen:  Help us to identify new online threats AVG offer this service free of charge to you and millions of other users, you can help them improve the service by reporting information about potentially malicious websites. If you don’t mind AVG knowing which websites you visit, then enabling this feature shouldn’t be a problem. Otherwise, you may want to leave it disabled.Click Next. Fourth screen:  Update AVG protection Click Next on this screen, and AVG will perform an update. Fifth screen:  AVG Update Whilst it is updating, go make yourself another cup of tea! Once completed, you can click Next. Sixth screen:  Register AVG Anti-Virus Free. Optionally you can register your copy of AVG – but there is no obligation, so if you want to you can just click Next. Seventh screen:  AVG protection configuration is complete You’re done, your AVG security software is now fully installed and protecting your computer from the evils of the internet.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Pilipinas for Sale Gma7

Gerald C. RollonCLHS104 Environmental ScienceMr. Choi PILIPINAS FOR SALE Sa Luzon, tinuklas ang sinasabing nagaganap na bentahan ng ilang isla sa pamosong El Nido sa Palawan. Tulad na lang ng Turtle Island, kilalang breedingground ng mga pawikan. Ang walong ektaryang isla, ngayo'y ibinebenta sa halagang P12 million. Sa Visayas, may ganito ring nagaganap na kalakalan sa Bohol. Gamit ang tax declaration, ibinebenta rin ang ilang islang idineklara bilang protected area. Sa Cebu naman, natuklasang ginagamit ito bilang isa sa transhipment points upang ipuslit palabas ng bansa ang black corals.Sa Mindanao, hinanap sa kauna-unahang pagkakataon ang umano'y pinagmulan ng tone-toneladang black corals na nasabat sa mga pier ilang buwan na ang nakararaan. Sinayasat din ang isyu ng pagmimina sa CARAGA, ang tinaguriang mining capital sa bansa. REFECTION: PILIPINAS FOR SALE This is sad to know that our own land is for sale. People of the Philippines must not only focus on the problems in Manila alo ne but also see the other problems of its other islands because every Filipino people would benefit its preservation.I think the government should do something about it, if they have the responsibility of protecting its people, they might be also have the responsibility to take care of its mother land and everything that was created within it. Most especially the people should be aware of the consequences one thing might happen in the future. Big companies might offer something else as a counter offer for their own gain but whose to blame if the government can't provide the people what they need. Too sad!

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Earliest American Literature was English and Literary Essay

Earliest American writers were Englishmen who came to Jamestown, Virginia, the first of the permanent settlements of the English in America. These writers included John Smith, the author of A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Note as Hath Hapned in Virginia Since the First Planting of that Colony, which is now resident in the South part thereof, till the last returne from thence; William Stratchey, author of True repertory of the wreck and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates, July fifteenth, sixteen hundred and ten; and the famous English poet, George Sandys, who completed Ovid’s Metamorphosis on the American soil (â€Å"Early Colonial Literature†). Since none of these writers were acquainted with American culture as we know it, their works must be considered English literature composed on the American soil. Although Smith’s A True Relation was a letter written to his friend in England, it is literary in the modern sense of the word. Like other pieces of historical literature, A True Relation is educational for the modern reader. What is more, the writer’s arrangement of the narrative is rather vibrant, making it by no means appear as everyday writing (Smith). Like Smith, Stratchey also wrote for readers back in England but his writing style was more masterful. Describing a shipwreck on the way to America, he writes, â€Å"The clouds gathering thick upon us, and the winds singing and whistling most unusually†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Stratchey). In fact, Stratchey’s style is poetic throughout his work, rendering it not only literary but a work of art (Stratchey). Of course, Sandys’ translation of the Metamorphosis is incomparable. It continues to be a well-known piece of literature composed on the American soil by one of the first Englishmen to arrive in Jamestown bringing the spirit of the true English poet to the New World (Sandys). Because all three writers came from England carrying their own culture to the American soil, their works composed in America were entirely English. Moreover, all three writings mentioned were first published in England. Perusing these interesting, skillfully composed writings leaves no doubt in the modern reader’s mind that these works are literary indeed. Hence, earliest American literature must be described as English and literary. Works Cited â€Å"Early Colonial Literature. † Bibliomania: Free Online Literature and Study Guides. 11 Jan 2009. . Sandys, George. George Sandys, Ovid’s Metamorphosis (1632). 11 Jan 2009. . Smith, John. A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Note as Hath Hapned in Virginia Since the First Planting of that Colony, which is now resident in the South part thereof, till the last returne from thence. 11 Jan 2009. . Stratchey, William. True repertory of the wreck and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates, July fifteenth, sixteen hundred and ten. 11 Jan 2009. .